Who was the most outstanding Polish monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty?
Władysław II Jagiełło, who made the decision about the Polish-Lithuanian union, and winner of the Battle of Grunwald.
Casimir IV Jagiellon, who broke Teutonic power in the Thirteen Years’ War and built a Polish-Lithuanian empire. His sons sat on Czech and Hungarian thrones, becoming one of the most powerful dynasties in Europe.
Sigismund I the Old, who finally defeated the Teutonic state and consolidated Polish-Lithuanian power, bringing the Prussians to pay tribute and invigorating the development of Polish culture. His rule was a golden era for Poland.
Sigismund II Augustus, who led the unification of Livonia with the Polish-Lithuanian union and signed the Lublin Union, which established a new federal state called the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Voting results for previous surveys.
On 25 January 1831, the Sejm of Congress Poland dethroned Tsar Nicholas I (crowned as a Polish king in Warsaw on 24 May 1829). That decision meant an unavoidable war with Russia. It was:
On 31 December 1989, President Wojciech Jaruzelski signed a package of economic laws known as the Balcerowicz Plan aimed at establishing a market economy system in Poland. What is your assessment of its outcomes?
On 24 December 1798, the poet Adam Mickiewicz was born. Which of his works has the greatest impact on shaping the historical awareness of the Poles?
On 17 November 1989, the monument of Feliks Dzierżyński was disassembled in Warsaw. Do you think that
On 10 November 1444, the battle of Varna took place in which the king of Poland and Hungary Władysłąw, later known as Władysłąw of Varna, died. Which of the statements below do you find closest to the truth?
On 20 October 1655, Grand Hetman of Lithuania Janusz Radziwiłł announced in the agreement of Kėdainiai with the Swedes the dissolution of the union with the Polish Crown and a bond between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Sweden. How do you assess Radziwiłł’s action?
On 28 September 1939, after a three-week-long siege, Warsaw capitulated. Was defending the city a sensible thing or did it only cause unnecessary losses to Warsaw and its population?
The 1939 Polish defensive war ended up soon with a defeat, a shock to Polish society. The reasons for it were as follows:
In mid-August 1920, Warsaw outskirts were a site of a battle that reversed the course of the Polish-Bolshevik war. Researchers still do not agree as to who the mastermind behind that operation and its actual leader was. Which of the statements below seems most convincing to you?
According to what Jan Długosz reports on the battle of Grunwald in the second half of the 15th century, the Lithuanians left the battlefield in disarray after a brief fight. The Swedish historian Sven Ekdahl found in 1963 an undated letter to the great master of the Order of Teutonic Knights where one can read: ‘It may so happen that your enemies will allow one or two banners to retreat or flee: that will be premediated and done in the hope that your formation breaks down since people typically like to mount a chase just as was the case in the great battle.’ Do you think that the letter cited undermines the reliability of Jan Długosz’s reporting?
On 1 July 1569, the union of the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was established in Lublin during a session of the general Sejm, known as the Union of Lublin. It continued until the end of the 1700s, thus becoming one of the most durable of such alliances in European history. What do you think were the key factors determining its longevity?
On 4 June 1989, general elections for the Polish People’s Republic’s Sejm and Senate took place. Several months later – on 28 October – the actress Joanna Szczepkowska during a live interview in the Dziennik Telewizyjny news bulletin said: ‘Ladies and Gentlemen, 4 June 1989 marks the end of communism in Poland.’ 30 years on,:
2 June 1979 marked the beginning of Pope John Paul II’s first pilgrimage to Poland. Do you think that it contributed to the founding of the Solidarity movement a year later?
On 5 May 1819, in a manor in Ubiel (the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, now Minsk Governorate, Belarus) Stanisław Moniuszko was born, a composer, pedagogue and conductor considered the father of the Polish national opera. Do you remember (or can you possibly hum?) any melody from a piece composed by Moniuszko? If so, which of his works does it come from?
On 3 May 1791, the Sejm adopted a constitution known since then as the Constitution of 3 May. Did the state governance system it introduced offer a chance of reversing Poland’s fate?
On 23 April 1935, President Ignacy Mościcki signed a new ‘April’ Constitution. What is your assessment of the state governance system which it introduced?
Thirteen Years’ War: In April 1454, the Kingdom of Poland declared a war on the Teutonic Order, which was to last, intermittently, until 1466. What is your assessment of its outcome written down in the Second Peace of Toruń (Thorn)?
Was Solidarity right to take up discussions at the Round Table with the Communist authorities in spring 1989?
If the Republic of Poland had taken the same direction as its neighbors and transformed into an absolute monarchy…
Polish society in exile after the Second World War was very divided by the argument about a positions toward the lost eastern borderlands. Columnists in the journal ‘Kultura’, run in Paris by Jerzy Giedroyc with Juliusz Mieroszewski in a top intellectual role, called for recognition of the newly imposed borders and reconciliation with neighboring lands, while the “unbreakables” in London opined that the imposed territorial changes would be only recognized by a fully independent Poland. Who was right?
Imagine you are a clerk for the Polish government-in-exile in London. You learn that, as a result of the Yalta Conference, Poland has ended up in the Soviet sphere of influence. What do you do?