On 24 September 1621, Great Hetman of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz died in a camp at Khotyn (Chocim). He was one of the most eminent examples of leaders practising the military art typical of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Which of his victorious battles had the major impact on the fate of the country?

his defeat of the Swedes at Kircholm in 1605, which temporarily stopped the progression of the Swedish troops
his skilful management of the defence of Khotyn, halting the Turkish expansion on territories within the Commonwealth for half of a century
his 1671 raid on Moscow which although failing to conquer the city, allowed him to hold talks as the stronger party, leading to the conclusion of the Truce of Deulino

Voting results for previous surveys.